You may have heard people say that someone died because of hypertension or a family member is suffering from it and you ask yourself questions like what hypertension is and how to control it. Well, that is a simple guide that will show you everything you need to know about hypertension.

1. What is hypertension?
The normal blood pressure is between 120 and 80; any increase above this level is considered hypertension. The increases are categorized:
– If your blood pressure ranges from 139 to 89, you are in the pre-hypertension category.
– If your blood pressure is between 159 and 99, you have stage one hypertension and if it is above 160 and 100, then you are a severe hypertensive patient.
Notice that you may measure your blood pressure and find out that it is above the normal and yet you don’t have hypertension. Hypertension means that you have a persistent elevation of blood pressure.

2. What are the types of hypertension?

There are two types of hypertension; essential hypertension and secondary hypertension.
Essential hypertension is the most common. It is about 90% of hypertension cases and yet the causes of it are unknown. The causes may be genetic and hereditary factors, stress, salt, alcohol and hormonal disturbances but these are just assumptions and theories.
Secondary hypertension has clear causes due to certain pathological conditions as:
– Renal hypertension: Due to diseases like diabetic kidney.
– Endocrinal hypertension.
– Toxaemia of pregnancy.
About 10% of hypertension cases are of this type.

3. What are the risk factors of hypertension?
Risk factors mean that those people are more likely to get the disease. Some risk factors are:
– Age: It differs according to the type. Essential hypertension is common between 25 and 55 years while secondary hypertension can occur at any age.
– Sex: hypertension is more common among males than females.
– Hereditary: genetic factors play role in essential hypertension. It runs in the family.
– Lifestyle: People who are always busy and stressful are more likely to develop hypertension.

4. How to control hypertension?

Well, if you are a hypertensive patient, you probably know this information already.
To prevent hypertension, you need to determine the type. Essential hypertension is probably managed by prevention and control of the risk factors while secondary hypertension is controlled by curing the cause.
The advices that any doctor in the world says to his/her patients to control hypertension are:
– Activity: once your doctor controls your hypertension, he/she will advise you to have a daily exercise.
– Relax: If your work is so noisy and stressful, take a vacation and try to work in a calm environment.

– Diet: there are several tips that must be followed like avoidance of excessive salt, low caloric food for obese patients and avoidance of excess animal fat and cholesterol rich foods.
– Antihypertensive drugs are long term and need regular follow up
– Surgery may be used in some cases of secondary hypertension.

Hypertension is a dangerous and very common disease. It is fatal sometimes and has dangerous complications. Once you feel the symptoms like headache, fatigue and dizziness, don’t hesitate to go to a clinic.